NAFO-seminaret 2018, Forseminar: Ulike aspekter ved stimuluskontroll

Lecture Hall

Storefjell Høyfjellshotell 25. og 26. april.

Ingen former for atferd skjer i et vakuum. I de alle fleste sammenhenger er det slik at noen stimuli foranlediger atferd. Dette i seg selv, gjør området stimuluskontroll til et særs spennende felt uavhengig av dimensjoner ved atferdsanalyse. Generelt sett kan en si at stimuluskontroll dreier seg om at atferd skjer oftere i nærvær av en type stimulus enn en annen stimulus. Et helt trivielt eksempel er at i nærvær av rødt trafikklys foranlediger det «tråkke på bremsen» atferd. Stimuluskontroll er bredt og komplekst området og vi vil i dette seminaret berøre noen av feltene som tilhører dette området.

Forseminaret kommer til å bestå av noen lengere forelesninger, samt kortere innlegg som alle vil omhandle problemstillinger av begrepsmessig, eksperimentell eller anvendt karakter. Og også problemstillinger innen translasjonsforskning vil bli presentert.

Under finner du en oversikt over bekreftede bidrag. Det planlegges å skjøte til ytterligere bidrag i løpet av nærmeste fremtid.

 

Spesielt invitert foreleser

Årets spesielt inviterte foreleser, professor Caio Miguel, Ph.D. fra California State University, Sacramento, vil bidra med en av forelesningene ved forseminaret.


Forelesning på forseminar

Successive Matching-to-Sample and the Establishment of Conditional Relations

Caio Miguel California State University

Kategori: Eksperimentell atferdsanalyse

Sammendrag: Although matching-to-sample (MTS) reliably produces equivalence classes, it requires several prerequisite skills. In the absence of these prerequisites, MTS may produce faulty stimulus control. Research has shown that alternatives such as compound stimulus discrimination and successive matching-to-sample (S-MTS) have been sufficient to produce conditional relations. Six experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of S-MTS to produce stimulus classes in 48 adults. S-MTS trials consisted of the presentation of a single sample stimulus followed by one comparison on a fixed location. Depending on the relation of the sample and comparison, participants touched (i.e., go) or did not touch (i.e., no-go) the comparison. Following training of baseline relations (AB/BC), participants received tests to evaluate whether untrained relations (i.e., BA/CB and AC/CA) emerged. Although participants passed symmetry tests, many failed transitivity. These results suggest that SMTS may be a promising procedure for the establishment of conditional relations.


Forelesning på forseminar

On the Role of Attending Behavior in Stimulus Control

Live Fay Braaten OsloMet - Storbyuniversitetet
Erik Arntzen OsloMet - Storbyuniversitetet

Kategori: Konseptuell/teoretisk atferdsanalyse

Sammendrag: In order for a stimulus to exert some sort of control of behavior, the organism must be attending to that stimulus in one way or another. Even though adequate stimuli are present in the environment to guide behavior, the learner may not sense them and the appropriate response may fail to occur. Attending behavior have been studied both by looking at the degree of stimulus control in the presence and absence of certain stimuli and by measuring eye movements directly. This presentation will firstly give a brief overview of research done on attending behavior and especially eye movements in behavior analytic literature. Secondly, discuss the role attending behavior plays in stimulus control, and lastly, show some eye-tracking data form our lab.


Forelesning på forseminar

Stimulus Control and Dementia

Hanna Steinunn Steingrimsdóttir OsloMet - Storbyuniversitetet
Erik Arntzen OsloMet - Storbyuniversitetet

Kategori: Konseptuell/teoretisk atferdsanalyse

Sammendrag: In 2013, Murry Sidman published an article in the European Journal of Behavior Analysis where he adressed issues related to stimulus control in Alzheimer‘s patients. In his article he discussed ways to measure and describe behavioral changes in this population by using both simple and conditional discrimination procedures. His ideas were based on his extensive experience using these procedure ranging back to the early 1960s where he studied behavioral deficits in patients with head injureis to more recent experiments and publications. Current presenation will introduce Sidman‘s ideas on stimulus control issues in patients with Alzheimers Disease or other dementias and elaborate with reference to recent studies targeting these issues.


Forelesning på forseminar

Blocking of Stimulus Control

Monica Vandbakk OsloMet - Storbyuniversitetet
Heidi Skorge Olaff OsloMet - Storbyuniversitetet
Per Holth OsloMet - Storbyuniversitetet

Kategori: Eksperimentell atferdsanalyse

Sammendrag: Blocking is an effect that involves compound stimuli as when the first trained stimulus controls responding and not the second one (Kamin, 1969). Blocking is observed in both classical and operant conditioning, in animals as well as in humans (vom Saal & Jenkins, 1970; Williams, 1996; Dittlinger & Lerman, 2011).

We carried out a study to investigate the blocking of stimulus control in rats. First, we trained chain pulling for water in the presence of either a tone or a light. Next, we reinforced chain pulling in the presence of a combination of tone and light. Very little stimulus control was evident by the stimulus that had not been established as a discriminative stimulus early during training.

Procedures that produce blocking a can have practical impact in applied settings, in attempts to establish complex discrimination for example.


Forelesning på forseminar

From simple to complex stimulus control using animals in laboratory settings

Iver H. Iversen University of North Florida

Kategori: Eksperimentell atferdsanalyse

Sammendrag: Stimulus control of behavior is customarily treated as a fairly simple matter, turn on a discriminative stimulus and a behavior that has previously been reinforced in the presence of that stimulus will follow. Such control develops rather quickly. But there are many additional features of stimulus control that are complex and highly dependent on particular aspects of the procedure or three-term contingency. A very basic distinction is between S-Dee (stimulus with reinforcement of a response) and S-Delta (stimulus with no reinforcement). The presentation will give examples of both types of stimulus control in settings with intermittent reinforcement of stimulus control, chaining of stimuli and responses, discriminative control by reinforcement, discriminative control of variability, and reversal of stimulus control. Stimulus control has been studied for decades in the laboratory using animals, and translation of basic research findings to clinical settings is very important.


Forelesning på forseminar

Stimulus Control Revisited

Carsta Simon OsloMet - Storbyuniversitetet

Kategori: Eksperimentell atferdsanalyse

Sammendrag: Activities change as context changes. Stimuli are the context of activities. If activities are under control of stimuli, their frequency or likelihood changes as stimuli change. To speak of stimulus control is to speak of activities changing as their context changes. Traditionally, a process of response strengthening explains that organisms work for contact to or avoidance of important events (unconditioned reinforcers/punishers) or signals, which predict them (conditioned reinforcers/ punishers). I present data from an experiment on verbal behavior supporting an alternative approach in which “reinforcers” are performance modulators. All behavior may be partly attributed to selection during phylogeny and partly during ontogeny. In this approach, changes in performance do not reflect strengthening of responses in a reserve but are an innate response to experienced predictive relations between important events and their signals or signposts. The predictive value of signals, rather than strengthening, explains the allocation of time to different activities.


Forelesning på forseminar

Moles, Melanomas, and Stimulus Control

Ruth Kopperud OsloMet - Storbyuniversitetet

Kategori: Anvendt atferdsanalyse

Sammendrag: Stimulus control is essential to reduce the prevalence of malignant melanoma. Annually, 2000 people in Norway are diagnosed with malignant melanoma—around 400 of them. die. We will present participants who entered our experiment, unable to discriminate between harmful and harmless moles. A few hours training matching-to-sample tasks, enabled all participants to discriminate successfully. The participants established stimulus control by recognizing the different categories of moles. Additionally, the participants responded in accordance with equivalence. The study was submitted to The Norwegian Cancer Association was informed about the findings and the promising results were presented to cancer researchers, and to the Health Directorate, in a consensus meeting arranged by the Cancer Association. Furthermore, the study contributed in a national campaign which the Cancer Association launched to promote measures needed to the control of skin cancer. We launched the SAFE test.