NAFO-seminaret 2018, Preconvention on Different Issues within the Area of Stimulus Control

Lecture Hall

Storefjell Høyfjellshotell 25. og 26. april.

No kind of behavior occurs in a vacuum. In most cases, some stimuli precede behavior. Hence, by itself, this makes the area of stimulus control an exciting field regardless of the behavioral dimensions. Generally speaking, one can say that stimulus control is about behavior occurring more often in the presence of a type of stimulus than another stimulus. A very trivial example is that in the presence of red traffic light it causes "stepping on the brake" behavior. Stimulus control is an extensive and complex area, and this preconvention will touch upon some of the fields that belong to this area. The seminar will address issues within all dimensions of behavior analysis, as conceptual, experimental, and applied research questions. As well as issues that could be characterized as translation research.

 

Spesielt invitert foreleser

Årets spesielt inviterte foreleser, professor Caio Miguel, Ph.D. fra California State University, Sacramento, vil bidra med en av forelesningene ved forseminaret.


Forelesning på forseminar

Successive Matching-to-Sample and the Establishment of Conditional Relations

Caio Miguel California State University

Kategori: Eksperimentell atferdsanalyse

Sammendrag: Although matching-to-sample (MTS) reliably produces equivalence classes, it requires several prerequisite skills. In the absence of these prerequisites, MTS may produce faulty stimulus control. Research has shown that alternatives such as compound stimulus discrimination and successive matching-to-sample (S-MTS) have been sufficient to produce conditional relations. Six experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of S-MTS to produce stimulus classes in 48 adults. S-MTS trials consisted of the presentation of a single sample stimulus followed by one comparison on a fixed location. Depending on the relation of the sample and comparison, participants touched (i.e., go) or did not touch (i.e., no-go) the comparison. Following training of baseline relations (AB/BC), participants received tests to evaluate whether untrained relations (i.e., BA/CB and AC/CA) emerged. Although participants passed symmetry tests, many failed transitivity. These results suggest that SMTS may be a promising procedure for the establishment of conditional relations.


Forelesning på forseminar

From simple to complex stimulus control using animals in laboratory settings

Iver H. Iversen University of North Florida

Kategori: Eksperimentell atferdsanalyse

Sammendrag: Stimulus control of behavior is customarily treated as a fairly simple matter, turn on a discriminative stimulus and a behavior that has previously been reinforced in the presence of that stimulus will follow. Such control develops rather quickly. But there are many additional features of stimulus control that are complex and highly dependent on particular aspects of the procedure or three-term contingency. A very basic distinction is between S-Dee (stimulus with reinforcement of a response) and S-Delta (stimulus with no reinforcement). The presentation will give examples of both types of stimulus control in settings with intermittent reinforcement of stimulus control, chaining of stimuli and responses, discriminative control by reinforcement, discriminative control of variability, and reversal of stimulus control. Stimulus control has been studied for decades in the laboratory using animals, and translation of basic research findings to clinical settings is very important.


Forelesning på forseminar

Blocking of Stimulus Control

Monica Vandbakk OsloMet - Storbyuniversitetet
Heidi Skorge Olaff OsloMet - Storbyuniversitetet
Per Holth OsloMet - Storbyuniversitetet

Kategori: Eksperimentell atferdsanalyse

Sammendrag: Blocking is an effect that involves compound stimuli as when the first trained stimulus controls responding and not the second one (Kamin, 1969). Blocking is observed in both classical and operant conditioning, in animals as well as in humans (vom Saal & Jenkins, 1970; Williams, 1996; Dittlinger & Lerman, 2011).

We carried out a study to investigate the blocking of stimulus control in rats. First, we trained chain pulling for water in the presence of either a tone or a light. Next, we reinforced chain pulling in the presence of a combination of tone and light. Very little stimulus control was evident by the stimulus that had not been established as a discriminative stimulus early during training.

Procedures that produce blocking a can have practical impact in applied settings, in attempts to establish complex discrimination for example.


Forelesning på forseminar

On the Role of Attending Behavior in Stimulus Control

Live Fay Braaten OsloMet - Storbyuniversitetet
Erik Arntzen OsloMet - Storbyuniversitetet

Kategori: Konseptuell/teoretisk atferdsanalyse

Sammendrag: In order for a stimulus to exert some sort of control of behavior, the organism must be attending to that stimulus in one way or another. Even though adequate stimuli are present in the environment to guide behavior, the learner may not sense them and the appropriate response may fail to occur. Attending behavior have been studied both by looking at the degree of stimulus control in the presence and absence of certain stimuli and by measuring eye movements directly. This presentation will firstly give a brief overview of research done on attending behavior and especially eye movements in behavior analytic literature. Secondly, discuss the role attending behavior plays in stimulus control, and lastly, show some eye-tracking data form our lab.


Forelesning på forseminar

Stimulus Control and Eye-Tracking

Pedram Sadeghi OsloMet - Storbyuniversitetet

Kategori: Konseptuell/teoretisk atferdsanalyse

Tema/nøkkelord: stimulus control, eye-tracking, eye movements, attention, observing response

Sammendrag: Eye-tracking technology is widely applied in various fields and scientific disciplines. The development and refinement of eye-tracking technology gives access to less invasive, highly accurate and precise measurements of eye movements. Contemporary eye-trackers allows the assessment of eye movements across many experimental settings, which earlier where confined to laboratory settings. Despite the fact that the study of eye movements has a long history, there has not been a systematic use of eye-tracking within behavior analysis. It is predominantly in research on stimulus control, attending, and complex behavior that eye-tracking has been utilized. For instance, with eye-tracking the concept of the observing response is expanded to include eye movements, which result in the concept of ocular observing response. Thereby, eye-tracking makes it possible for additional analysis that contributes to the understating of stimulus control relations.


Forelesning på forseminar

Stimulus Control Revisited

Carsta Simon OsloMet - Storbyuniversitetet

Kategori: Eksperimentell atferdsanalyse

Sammendrag: Activities change as context changes. Stimuli are the context of activities. If activities are under control of stimuli, their frequency or likelihood changes as stimuli change. To speak of stimulus control is to speak of activities changing as their context changes. Traditionally, a process of response strengthening explains that organisms work for contact to or avoidance of important events (unconditioned reinforcers/punishers) or signals, which predict them (conditioned reinforcers/ punishers). I present data from an experiment on verbal behavior supporting an alternative approach in which “reinforcers” are performance modulators. All behavior may be partly attributed to selection during phylogeny and partly during ontogeny. In this approach, changes in performance do not reflect strengthening of responses in a reserve but are an innate response to experienced predictive relations between important events and their signals or signposts. The predictive value of signals, rather than strengthening, explains the allocation of time to different activities.


Forelesning på forseminar

Moles, Melanomas, and Stimulus Control

Ruth Kopperud OsloMet - Storbyuniversitetet

Kategori: Anvendt atferdsanalyse

Sammendrag: Stimulus control is essential to reduce the prevalence of malignant melanoma. Annually, 2000 people in Norway are diagnosed with malignant melanoma—around 400 of them. die. We will present participants who entered our experiment, unable to discriminate between harmful and harmless moles. A few hours training matching-to-sample tasks, enabled all participants to discriminate successfully. The participants established stimulus control by recognizing the different categories of moles. Additionally, the participants responded in accordance with equivalence. The study was submitted to The Norwegian Cancer Association was informed about the findings and the promising results were presented to cancer researchers, and to the Health Directorate, in a consensus meeting arranged by the Cancer Association. Furthermore, the study contributed in a national campaign which the Cancer Association launched to promote measures needed to the control of skin cancer. We launched the SAFE test.


Forelesning på forseminar

Stimulus Control and Dementia

Hanna Steinunn Steingrimsdóttir OsloMet - Storbyuniversitetet
Erik Arntzen OsloMet - Storbyuniversitetet

Kategori: Konseptuell/teoretisk atferdsanalyse

Sammendrag: In 2013, Murry Sidman published an article in the European Journal of Behavior Analysis where he adressed issues related to stimulus control in Alzheimer‘s patients. In his article he discussed ways to measure and describe behavioral changes in this population by using both simple and conditional discrimination procedures. His ideas were based on his extensive experience using these procedure ranging back to the early 1960s where he studied behavioral deficits in patients with head injureis to more recent experiments and publications. Current presenation will introduce Sidman‘s ideas on stimulus control issues in patients with Alzheimers Disease or other dementias and elaborate with reference to recent studies targeting these issues.


Forelesning på forseminar

Differential Outcome May Facilitate Conditional Discrimination

Sigmund Eldevik OsloMet - Storbyuniversitetet

Kategori: Konseptuell/teoretisk atferdsanalyse

Sammendrag: Learning of conditional discriminations occurs after less trials when the correct response to each sample stimulus is followed by its own unique reinforcer. This has been called the differential outcome effect (DOE). It is a consistent finding reported in several studies with both non-humans and humans. Recently, the DOE has been incorporated into procedures to teach conditional discriminations to children with autism in early intervention programs. We will present data that support the differential outcome effect – and relate it to what we have called Functional Discrimination Training. At present, there does not seem to be a single behavioral theory that can explain the DOE . We will discuss some of the theories that attempt to explain the DOE.


Forelesning på forseminar

A Comparison of Two Discrimination Training Procedures to Teach Receptive Labelling to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Brittany Marie DiSanti OsloMet - Storbyuniversitetet

Kategori: Anvendt atferdsanalyse

Sammendrag: The study compared receptive labeling involving conditional discriminations to children with autism. The study included six children ranging in age from 9-years to 13-years old with 50 or less receptive labels and 200 or more receptive labels. All participants were exposed to two sessions a day of the Structured Mix before Counterbalanced Random Rotation (SMCRR) procedure and Counterbalanced Random Rotation (CRR) procedure. The SMCRR procedure included five steps with mass trials, and intermixing of stimuli before randomization. The CRR procedure involved random order of stimuli from onset. Participants were exposed to one, two, or three stimulus sets using both conditions. Results indicated a mix in effectiveness with procedures, but altogether the SMCRR procedure required less trials, less prompts, but more errors. There is potential evidence for faulty stimulus control for participants who did not master the SMCRR procedure. This possibility merits further study.