NAFO-seminaret 2019

Oversikt over program innen kategorien "Eksperimentell atferdsanalyse"


Experimental and Translational Studies on Stimulus Control and Emergent Relations

Erik Arntzen OsloMet - storbyuniversitetet

Kategori: Eksperimentell atferdsanalyse

Tid og sted: Fredag 09:00-13:00 (Veslefjellhall 1)

Sammendrag: We will present a variety of experiments from the research group Experimental Studies of Complex Human Behavior at Oslo Metropolitan University. The main focus of these experiments will be on stimulus control, and especially conditional discrimination and emergent relations. The participants in these experiments will be from different age groups and also patient groups as people with dementia. The symposium will start with a brief overview and introduction of stimulus equivalence. Thereafter, experiments will be presented, both from translation research and basic research.

Introduction on emergent relations

Erik Arntzen Oslo Metropolitan University

Establishing mathematical concepts in conditional discrimination training

Torunn Lian Oslo Metropolitan University
Erik Arntzen Oslo Metropolitan University

Sammendrag: The present study investigated whether simple understanding of mathematical concepts could be demonstrated following matching-to-sample (MTS) training and test for stimulus equivalence. The stimuli involved fractions, decimals, percent and ratios. Seven participants, three girls and four boys, age eight to ten, first experienced computer administered MTS training of six baseline relations in three potential classes followed by computer administered test for emergent responding. Then, three new baseline relations, one in each potential class, were established in table-top training, followed by computer-administered test for emergent responding. Finally, the potential classes were expanded to five members in table-top training and followed by a computer-administered test for stimulus equivalence. Six out of seven participants demonstrated simple understanding of the mathematical concepts and also preformed correctly on a written post-test. The results indicate that equivalence procedures can be very effective in establishing simple understanding of math concepts.

Delayed Matching-to Sample in a Woman with Alzheimer´s Disease

Anette Brogård Antonsen Oslo Metropolitan University
Erik Arntzen Oslo Metropolitan University

Sammendrag: In the present study, a 91-year old woman with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) participated. She had a Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) score of 17. The study included two experiments with identity matching of color stimuli. In Experiment 1, was the participant presented for delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS) 0s and simultaneous matching-to-sample (SMTS). The results showed how the number of trials to meet criterion of mastery were reduced through repetitive training. In Experiment 2, she was presented for DMTS with delays of 12s, 24s, 18s, 15s, and 13.5s. The results showed that the participant responded to criterion in the DMTS 12s and the DMTS 13.5s conditions. In addition, did the result show that the number of trials to criterion increased in the highest delay conditions.

N400 in participants with high function autism and controls

Guro Dunvoll Oslo Metropolitan University
Erik Arntzen Oslo Metropolitan University
Torbjørn Elvsåshagen Oslo Metropolitan University
Christoffer Hatlestad Oslo Metropolitan University
Eva Malt Oslo Metropolitan University

Sammendrag: Equivalence class formation is demonstrated to be reflected in the electrophysiological (EEG) component N400. The N400 component is an event-related-potential observed 400 ms after presentation of unrelated stimulus pair in comparison with a related stimulus pair. Inconsistent results are found in participants with autism, some experiments have demonstrated the N400 effect and some not. In the current experiment, one group with high functioning autism were trained 6 conditional discriminations with C-stimuli as meaningful stimuli and A and B stimuli were abstract shapes. The training was followed by testing for emergent relations. Then, the participants conducted a priming procedure with unrelated stimulus pairs and stimulus pairs related by the features of symmetry and transitivity/equivalence. The results from the experiment showed an observable N400 response, but with differences in the different features of an equivalence class.

Transfer of Positive and Negative Valenced Functions in Delayed and Simultaneous Matching-to Sample

Jon Magnus Eilertsen Oslo Metropolitan University
Erik Arntzen Oslo Metropolitan University

Sammendrag: In delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS), the sample stimulus is typically removed by an observing response, or by the passing of n-seconds before the comparison stimuli are presented. In stimulus equivalence research, DMTS have been shown to influence both the formation of equivalence classes and the transfer of stimulus functions, dependent on the delay interval. In the present experiment, sixteen participants in four experimental groups exposed to SMTS (Group 1), DMTS 0-s (Group 2), DMTS 3-s (Group 3), and DMTS 6-s (Group 4) trained conditional discriminations and were tested for the emergence of three 6-member classes (A->B->C->D->E->F). The A-stimuli consisted of faces showing angry (A1), neutral (A2), and happy (A3) expressions. Participants were exposed to two transitivity (BF) and equivalence (FB) tests. Finally, participants rated the D stimuli on a Semantic Differential Scale, and the scores were compared with a control group (n=24). Preliminary results show that positive valenced stimuli transfer to a higher degree than negative valenced stimuli.

Peripheral Vision in Matching-to-Sample Procedures

Live Fay Braaten Oslo Metropolitan University
Erik Arntzen Oslo Metropolitan University

Sammendrag: In an on-screen matching-to-sample task, participants have to visually search for the stimuli on the screen. Peripheral vision plays an essential role in visual search. In this presentation, we will show results from three experiments investigating peripheral visions in a matching to sample procedure and to what extent participants can attend to stimuli that vary in size and positions in the periphery. Participants learned eight conditional discriminations. In the test trials, participants had to fixate their gaze on the sample while selecting a comparison stimulus. Participants were exposed to 12 test condition were stimuli size and position varied. Eye movements were measured with a head-mounted eye-tracker. In Experiment 1, arbitrary relations were trained and tested. In Experiment, 2 participants were exposed to identity matching of abstract stimuli, and in Experiment 3 participants were exposed to identity matching of simple shapes. Initial results show that participants in Experiments 1 and 2, discriminate between abstract stimuli in the periphery when stimuli were 0.7 cm or larger. When stimuli were 0.7 cm and more than 12 cm from the fixation point, discrimination ceased. Participants were unable to discriminate stimuli that were 0.3 cm regardless of position. When stimuli were simple shapes, participants discriminated stimuli as small as 0.3 cm when they were 6 cm from the sample position but when the distance was 12 cm and 18 cm discrimination decrease.

Effect of Different Variables’ during Training and Test on Delayed Emergence in Stimulus Equivalence

Hanne Augland Oslo Metropolitan University
Torunn Lian Oslo Metropolitan University
Erik Arntzen Oslo Metropolitan University

Sammendrag: The aim of the present line of experiments was to shed light on how different variables during training and testing for equivalence class formation affected delayed emergence. Experiments 1 and 2 included training of 15 conditional discriminations (A/B/C/D/E), participants underwent concurrent training with meaningful pictures and abstract C-stimuli, respectively. All participants experienced tests for emergent relations both with and without baseline trials interspersed. None of the participants experiencing training with abstract C-stimuli responded in accordance with stimulus equivalence. In the experiment where meaningful pictures was used as C-stimuli, all participants responded in accordance with stimulus equivalence. With these data, it is hard to say anything with regards to which variables influence delayed emergence. Hence, Experiment 3 will employ serialized introducing of baseline trials, which has proved to have a positive outcome on stimulus equivalence formation. Manipulations of baseline trials will be the same as for Experiments 1 and 2. Finally, in Experiment 4 variables during training will be the same as for the first two experiments. Furthermore, tests will include only baseline and symmetry trials. Hopefully, this will give us a better understanding of why participants sometimes get delayed emergence of stimulus equivalence.