NAFO-seminaret 2019

Oversikt over program innen kategorien "Eksperimentell atferdsanalyse"


Symposium

Symposium: Experimental and Translational Studies on Stimulus Control and Emergent Relations

Erik Arntzen Oslo Metropolitan University

Kategori: Eksperimentell atferdsanalyse

Tid og sted: Fredag 09:00-13:00 (Veslefjellhall 1)

Sammendrag: We will present a variety of experiments from the research group Experimental Studies of Complex Human Behavior at Oslo Metropolitan University. The main focus of these experiments will be on stimulus control, and especially conditional discrimination and emergent relations. The participants in these experiments will be from different age groups and also patient groups as people with dementia. The symposium will start with a brief overview and introduction of stimulus equivalence. Thereafter, experiments will be presented, both from translation research and basic research.


Introduction on emergent relations

Erik Arntzen Oslo Metropolitan University

Establishing mathematical concepts in conditional discrimination training

Torunn Lian Oslo Metropolitan University
Erik Arntzen Oslo Metropolitan University

Sammendrag: The present study investigated whether simple understanding of mathematical concepts could be demonstrated following matching-to-sample (MTS) training and test for stimulus equivalence. The stimuli involved fractions, decimals, percent and ratios. Seven participants, three girls and four boys, age eight to ten, first experienced computer administered MTS training of six baseline relations in three potential classes followed by computer administered test for emergent responding. Then, three new baseline relations, one in each potential class, were established in table-top training, followed by computer-administered test for emergent responding. Finally, the potential classes were expanded to five members in table-top training and followed by a computer-administered test for stimulus equivalence. Six out of seven participants demonstrated simple understanding of the mathematical concepts and also preformed correctly on a written post-test. The results indicate that equivalence procedures can be very effective in establishing simple understanding of math concepts.


Delayed Matching-to Sample in a Woman with Alzheimer´s Disease

Anette Brogård Antonsen Oslo Metropolitan University
Erik Arntzen Oslo Metropolitan University

Sammendrag: In the present study, a 91-year old woman with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) participated. She had a Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) score of 17. The study included two experiments with identity matching of color stimuli. In Experiment 1, was the participant presented for delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS) 0s and simultaneous matching-to-sample (SMTS). The results showed how the number of trials to meet criterion of mastery were reduced through repetitive training. In Experiment 2, she was presented for DMTS with delays of 12s, 24s, 18s, 15s, and 13.5s. The results showed that the participant responded to criterion in the DMTS 12s and the DMTS 13.5s conditions. In addition, did the result show that the number of trials to criterion increased in the highest delay conditions.


Formation and Expansion of Stimulus Classes Documented by Sorting Tests

Anders Dechsling Oslo Metropolitan University
Erik Arntzen Oslo Metropolitan University
Lanny Fields the Graduate School of the City University of New York

Sammendrag: The present experiment studied sorting performance after expansion of class size. Thirty-two participants trained 12 conditional discriminations with a linear series training structure (A->B->C->D->E), which was followed by a CFS testing. Depending on the results of the sorting test, the participants were exposed to two different sequences of training and testing. If the participants sorted correctly (Sequence 1), they were exposed to F->C training to expand class size. Half of the participants were given MTS tests and finally a CFS retest. The other half were given the CFS test, an MTS test, and a final CFS retest. Participants who did not sort correctly on the first CFS (Sequence 2), were trained six baseline conditional relations with new stimuli (G->H->J), given a new sorting test and expanding training (K->H). Half of the participants were given an MTS and then a CFS test, while the other half were given CFS, MTS, and final CFS tests. The main findings were that all participants sorted correctly during tests for class expansion and showed 100% correspondence between sorting and MTS performance. The sorting tests documented the formation and expansion of equivalence classes.


N400 in participants with high function autism and controls

Guro Dunvoll Oslo Metropolitan University
Erik Arntzen Oslo Metropolitan University
Torbjørn Elvsåshagen Oslo Metropolitan University
Christoffer Hatlestad Oslo Metropolitan University
Eva Malt Oslo Metropolitan University

Sammendrag: Equivalence class formation is demonstrated to be reflected in the electrophysiological (EEG) component N400. The N400 component is an event-related-potential observed 400 ms after presentation of unrelated stimulus pair in comparison with a related stimulus pair. Inconsistent results are found in participants with autism, some experiments have demonstrated the N400 effect and some not. In the current experiment, one group with high functioning autism were trained 6 conditional discriminations with C-stimuli as meaningful stimuli and A and B stimuli were abstract shapes. The training was followed by testing for emergent relations. Then, the participants conducted a priming procedure with unrelated stimulus pairs and stimulus pairs related by the features of symmetry and transitivity/equivalence. The results from the experiment showed an observable N400 response, but with differences in the different features of an equivalence class.


Transfer of Positive and Negative Valenced Functions in Delayed and Simultaneous Matching-to Sample

Jon Magnus Eilertsen Oslo Metropolitan University
Erik Arntzen Oslo Metropolitan University

Sammendrag: In delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS), the sample stimulus is typically removed by an observing response, or by the passing of n-seconds before the comparison stimuli are presented. In stimulus equivalence research, DMTS have been shown to influence both the formation of equivalence classes and the transfer of stimulus functions, dependent on the delay interval. In the present experiment, sixteen participants in four experimental groups exposed to SMTS (Group 1), DMTS 0-s (Group 2), DMTS 3-s (Group 3), and DMTS 6-s (Group 4) trained conditional discriminations and were tested for the emergence of three 6-member classes (A->B->C->D->E->F). The A-stimuli consisted of faces showing angry (A1), neutral (A2), and happy (A3) expressions. Participants were exposed to two transitivity (BF) and equivalence (FB) tests. Finally, participants rated the D stimuli on a Semantic Differential Scale, and the scores were compared with a control group (n=24). Preliminary results show that positive valenced stimuli transfer to a higher degree than negative valenced stimuli.


Peripheral Vision in Matching-to-Sample Procedures

Live Fay Braaten Oslo Metropolitan University
Erik Arntzen Oslo Metropolitan University

Sammendrag: In an on-screen matching-to-sample task, participants have to visually search for the stimuli on the screen. Peripheral vision plays an essential role in visual search. In this presentation, we will show results from three experiments investigating peripheral visions in a matching to sample procedure and to what extent participants can attend to stimuli that vary in size and positions in the periphery. Participants learned eight conditional discriminations. In the test trials, participants had to fixate their gaze on the sample while selecting a comparison stimulus. Participants were exposed to 12 test condition were stimuli size and position varied. Eye movements were measured with a head-mounted eye-tracker. In Experiment 1, arbitrary relations were trained and tested. In Experiment, 2 participants were exposed to identity matching of abstract stimuli, and in Experiment 3 participants were exposed to identity matching of simple shapes. Initial results show that participants in Experiments 1 and 2, discriminate between abstract stimuli in the periphery when stimuli were 0.7 cm or larger. When stimuli were 0.7 cm and more than 12 cm from the fixation point, discrimination ceased. Participants were unable to discriminate stimuli that were 0.3 cm regardless of position. When stimuli were simple shapes, participants discriminated stimuli as small as 0.3 cm when they were 6 cm from the sample position but when the distance was 12 cm and 18 cm discrimination decrease.


Effect of Different Variables’ during Training and Test on Delayed Emergence in Stimulus Equivalence

Hanne Augland Oslo Metropolitan University
Torunn Lian Oslo Metropolitan University
Erik Arntzen Oslo Metropolitan University

Sammendrag: The aim of the present line of experiments was to shed light on how different variables during training and testing for equivalence class formation affected delayed emergence. Experiments 1 and 2 included training of 15 conditional discriminations (A/B/C/D/E), participants underwent concurrent training with meaningful pictures and abstract C-stimuli, respectively. All participants experienced tests for emergent relations both with and without baseline trials interspersed. None of the participants experiencing training with abstract C-stimuli responded in accordance with stimulus equivalence. In the experiment where meaningful pictures was used as C-stimuli, all participants responded in accordance with stimulus equivalence. With these data, it is hard to say anything with regards to which variables influence delayed emergence. Hence, Experiment 3 will employ serialized introducing of baseline trials, which has proved to have a positive outcome on stimulus equivalence formation. Manipulations of baseline trials will be the same as for Experiments 1 and 2. Finally, in Experiment 4 variables during training will be the same as for the first two experiments. Furthermore, tests will include only baseline and symmetry trials. Hopefully, this will give us a better understanding of why participants sometimes get delayed emergence of stimulus equivalence.


Location vs. Introduction of Meaningful Stimuli in Equivalence Class Formation

Elin Magnusdottir Oslo Metropolitan University
Erik Arntzen Oslo Metropolitan University

Sammendrag: This present experiment investigates whether the location of meaningful stimuli affects equivalence class formation. Thirty participants have been randomized in four groups. All participants attempt to form three 3-node 5-member equivalence classes under the simultaneous protocol. The four conditions differ in training structure and placement of meaningful stimuli. Three stimuli are meaningful, and nine stimuli are abstract shapes. In all conditions, the meaningful stimuli are “singles”. In two conditions they are trained as sample stimuli, while in the other two conditions they are trained as comparison stimuli. The groups are compared to see whether the location of meaningful stimuli has effect on the equivalence class formation. Preliminary results show small differences between conditions, which might imply that placement of meaningful stimuli is not substantial. This might also contradict the theory of “nodal distance”.


Equivalence Class Formation as Function of a Fragmented Versus a Linear Series Training Structure

Renate Follerås Oslo Metropolitan University
Erik Arntzen Oslo Metropolitan University

Sammendrag: The present experiment is a between-group study consisting of normally functioning adult participants divided into two different groups. The first group will undergo a linear training structure: A->B, B->C, C->D, D->E, E->F. The second group will undergo a fragmented training structure: A->B, E->F, D->E, C->D, and B->C. In addition, the procedure within the groups is varied in terms of interspersed mix blocks after the training of each relation which prolongs the training but makes the number of programmed presentations for each relation unequal, and no interspersed mix blocks which shorten the training and equalizes the number of programmed presentations for each relation. The participants are then tested for equivalence relations and within-class preference with the A and F stimuli as samples.


Poster

Eksperimentelle Studier av Kompleks Menneskelig Atferd ved OsloMet; Eksperimenter med Fokus på Stimuluskontroll

Guro Dunvoll OsloMet - storbyuniversitetet
Anette Brogård Antonsen OsloMet - storbyuniversitetet
Jon Magnus Eilertsen OsloMet - storbyuniversitetet
Hanne Augland OsloMet - storbyuniversitetet
Live Fay Braaten OsloMet - storbyuniversitetet
Vanessa Aires-Pereira OsloMet - storbyuniversitetet
Felix Høgnason OsloMet - storbyuniversitetet
Erik Arntzen OsloMet - storbyuniversitetet

Kategori: Eksperimentell atferdsanalyse

Tid og sted: Fredag 17:00-18:30 (Veslefjellhall 2 og 3)

Sammendrag: Forskningsgruppen for Eksperimentelle studier av kompleks menneskelig atferd ved OsloMet består av studenter på bachelor, master og Ph.D. nivå sammen med ansatte ved Institutt for Atferdsvitenskap. Forskningsgruppens fokus er på ulike aspekter av stimuluskontroll med særlig interesse for emergente relasjoner. Posteren vil gi en oversikt over eksperimenter gjennomført av gruppens medlemmer; treningsstrukturer, limited hold, transfer of function, bruk i opplæring, deltagere med demens, eye-tracking og EEG. Posteren vil også inneholde kontaktinformasjon for deltagelse eller samarbeid med forskningsgruppen.


Poster

Bruk av titrerende forsinkelsen i identitetsmatchings trening hos en dame med Alzheimers sykdom

Anette Brogård Antonsen OsloMet - storbyuniversitetet
Erik Arntzen OsloMet - storbyuniversitetet

Kategori: Eksperimentell atferdsanalyse

Tid og sted: Fredag 17:00-18:30 (Veslefjellhall 2 og 3)

Sammendrag: I denne studien deltok en kvinne på 92 år med Alzheimers sykdom. Hun hadde en Mini Mental Status (MMS) skåre på 17. Deltakeren ble presentert for ulike identitetsmatching med titrerende forsinkelse, der det ble alternert mellom størrelsen på titreringsblokkene. I første betingelse ble deltakeren presentert for blokker på 6 trials og i den andre betingelsen var bestod blokkene av 18 trials. Hensikten med studien var å identifisere hvor høyt deltakeren klarte å titrere forsinkelsen, og eventuelt ved hvilken forsinkelse korrekt respondering var stabilt. Resultatene viste at den lengste forsinkelsen deltakeren nådde var 17 sekunder. Videre viste resultatene storvariasjon i forsinkelse i begge betingelser.


Poster

Self-Control and Qualitatively Different Reinforcers

An Investigation of Qualitatively Different Reinforcers and its Impact on Self-Control

Nikola Ljusic Oslo Metropolitan University
Matthew L. Locey University of Nevada, Reno

Kategori: Eksperimentell atferdsanalyse

Tid og sted: Fredag 17:00-18:30 (Veslefjellhall 2 og 3)

Sammendrag: Melioration is a hypothesis about behavioral allocation during concurrent variable-interval schedules of reinforcement that states that behavioral distribution will be allocated more to local rates of reinforcement, in contrast to a maximization hypothesis that suggests that behavioral distribution will occur more at such strategies that produces most overall reinforcers (Vaughan, 1981). The melioration vs maximization hypothesis can be analogous to self-control where behaviors that are in accordance with melioration hypothesis are under control of immediate and smaller reinforcers, and where behaviors in accordance with the maximization hypothesis are under control of larger and delayed reinforcers. Forzano and Logue’s experiment (1994) suggests that qualitatively different reinforcers produces different behavioral allocation during same concurrent variable-interval schedules. This study investigated differences in responding during the same procedure as Vaughan (1981) but with qualitatively different reinforcers. No differences were found based on 11 undergrad psychology students at University of Nevada, Reno.


Poster

Stimuluskontrol ved sammensatte stimuli i delayed matching-to-sample prosedyrer

Live Fay Braaten OsloMet - storbyuniversitetet
Thea Thorkildsen OsloMet - storbyuniversitetet
Urke Torjus E. OsloMet - storbyuniversitetet
Erik Arntzen OsloMet - storbyuniversitetet

Kategori: Eksperimentell atferdsanalyse

Tid og sted: Fredag 17:00-18:30 (Veslefjellhall 2 og 3)

Sammendrag: Eksperimentet hadde som formål å undersøke om ett eller flere elementer av sammensatte stimuli utøver stimulus kontroll når deltakerne ble trent i en betinget diskriminasjonsprosedyre med delay. Femten deltakere ble eksponert for en blandet innen-subjekt/gruppe design. Seks deltakere ble trent for å etablere tre 3-medlemmers stimulusklasser med 3 sekunder delay, for deretter å bli trent med 6 sekunders delay med nytt stimulussett. Åtte andre deltakere ble trent med betingelsene i motsatt rekkefølge. I begge betingelsene bestod stimulussettet av seks abstrakte figurer og tre stimuli sammensatt av en form og en farge, en sammensatt stimuli i hver stimulusklasse. Deltakerne ble eksponert for to tester, en med sammensatt stimuli og en test hvor den sammensatte stimuli ble separert og elementene ble presentert individuelt. Resultatene viser at deltakere i første betingelse brukte flere trials for å etablere stimulusklasser uavhengig av betingelse, og at færre deltakere klarte Test 1 og 2 når de ble trent med seks sekunder delay enn tre sekunder i begge gruppene.


Poster

Antall meningsfulle stimuli i matching-to-sample prosedyrer og eye-tracking

Live Fay Braaten OsloMet - storbyuniversitetet
Jan Alexander Østby Oslomet - storbyuniversitetet
Larsen Julie OsloMet-storbyuniversitetet
Erik Arntzen OsloMet - storbyuniversitetet

Kategori: Eksperimentell atferdsanalyse

Tid og sted: Fredag 17:00-18:30 (Veslefjellhall 2 og 3)

Sammendrag: Tidligere forskning har vist at det å inkludere en meningsfull stimulus blant abstrakte stimuli i en matching-to-sample prosedyre øker sannsynligheten for å responderer i henhold til stimulusekvivalens. Dette eksperimentet hadde som formål å undersøkte om antall meningsfulle og abstrakte stimuli i hver klasse påvirket antall trials, respondering i henhold til stimulusekvivalens og øye-bevegelser. Tjuetre studenter ble randomisert til tre grupper med ulike stimuli. Det ble trent 12 betingede diskriminasjoner og testet tre 5-medlemmers ekvivalensklasser i hver gruppe. Stimuli ble presentert i en en-til-mange treningsstruktur hvor Gruppe 1 ble trent fra få abstrakte stimuli til mange meningsfulle stimuli, Gruppe 2 ble trent fra få meningsfulle stimuli til mange abstrakte stimuli og Gruppe 3 ble trent med kun abstrakte stimuli. Foreløpige resultater viser at deltakere trent fra få meningsfulle stimuli til mange abstrakte stimuli etablerte stimulusklassene raskere enn deltakere som ble presentert for kun abstrakte eller mange meningsfulle stimuli. Deltakerne hadde på seg øyemålings-utstyr og analyser av øyebevegelser vil også bli vist.


Poster

Overføring av evaluert smerte i ekvivalensklasser

Jon Magnus Eilertsen OsloMet - storbyuniversitetet
Erik Arntzen OsloMet - storbyuniversitetet

Kategori: Eksperimentell atferdsanalyse

Tid og sted: Fredag 17:00-18:30 (Veslefjellhall 2 og 3)

Sammendrag: Bruk av treningsstruktur i trening av betingede diskriminasjoner påvirker sannsynligheten for å respondere i henhold til stimulusekvivalens. Lineær treningsstruktur (LS) gir minst sannsynlighet for etablering av ekvivalensklasser. Den foreliggende studien undersøker hvorvidt LS påvirker overføring av stimulusfunksjoner og valg i preferansetester. Tjuefire studenter rangerte seks bilder av injeksjoner mot forskjellige punkter på en hånd. Bildene ble rangert på en 6-punkts Likert skala rangert fra minst til mest smertefull (1–5). Bildene som ble rangert som mest og minst smertefulle ble så brukt som stimulus D1 og D2. Bildet som ble brukt som D3 viste en Q tip som ble trykket mot en hånd. Etter rangeringen, trente deltakerne seks betingede diskriminasjoner med en LS treningsstruktur. Så ble det testet for tre 3-medlemmer ekvivalensklasser. Elleve av 24 deltakere etablerte tre 3-medlemmer ekvivalensklasser, mens ti av 26 deltaker utvidet klassene til tre 4-medlemmer ekvivalensklasser. Utvidelsen av klassene ble gjort ved at D-stimuliene ble trent til A stimuliene. I en påfølgende preferansetest ble de tre B-stimuliene klistret utenpå tre flasker. Fire deltakere valgte flasken med B3, mens en valgte B2 og fem valgte B1. En av 10 deltakere rangerte B og D stimuliene likt.